According to a peer-reviewed study published in the American Cancer Society Journal, cancer affects men and women in different ways, and the cause can be differences in the biological sexes rather than differences in behaviours like smoking, high fat diet or alcohol use. 
The study was published on 8 August, Monday, under the heading “Sex disparities in cancer: An ongoing quest.” Here are the details of the study.
The study findings say that men are at higher risks of developing most cancers than women, even after nonconsideration of most of their risk factors like tobacco use. The study implies that cancer susceptibility is influenced by biological differences between men and women.
To carry out the study, Sarah S. Jackson, a PhD research fellow associated with the National Cancer Institute, along with her colleagues, studied 21 cancer sites for both men and women.
The study included 171,274 men and 122,826 women who were 50-71 years old and who took part in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study from 1995 to 2011.
During that period, around 17951 new cases of cancer arose in men, and 8742 new cases in women.
The cancer types that were lower in men compared to women were thyroid and gallbladder. Apart from these two, the chances of cancer at other anatomic sites like the oesophagus, gastric cardia, larynx and bladder were 1.3-10.8 times higher.
These results point to significant biological differences, like physiological, immunological and genetic, between men and women that put the prior at increased risk.
Therefore, the incidence may explain why cancer risk is not only dependent on environmental exposure but intrinsic biological differences.
Are Lifestyle Factors Linked To Most Cancers In Men?
According to the researchers, the male predominance of most cancers was only partially explained by differences in risk behaviours and carcinogenic exposures between the sexes, which ranged from 11 per cent for oesophagal cancer to 50 per cent for lung cancer.
Therefore, the chances of lifestyle factors like smoking, alcohol use, poor diet, and inactive lifestyle leading to cancer are very low compared to biological differences. However, lifestyle factors do play an important role in increasing cancer risk, which is why, maintaining a healthy lifestyle is always important.
Considering biological differences as one of the primary factors can help detect and prevent the risk of cancer at an early stage. However, the study needs more research to fully understand the sex-based differences in cancer, according to the researchers of the study.
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