UPSC Key-August 9, 2022: Why you should read ‘Eggs and faith’ or ‘Transgender Persons’ or ‘Do or Die’ for UPSC CSE – The Indian Express

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FRONT PAGE

Bellary Reddy wants to restart mining, Andhra tells SC ‘no objection’

Syllabus:

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Preliminary Examination: Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.

Main Examination: General Studies I: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story-The Andhra Pradesh government has told the Supreme Court it has no objection to resumption of iron ore mining in Bellary reserve forest where it was banned in 2010 over encroachment of forest land and other alleged violations, primarily by Obulapuram Mining Company (OMC) of former Karnataka minister G Janardhan Reddy.

Map Work-Bellary reserve forest

• The mining of iron ore, an essential raw material for which industry?

• Which are the most important iron ores available in India?

• Haematite and magnetite-Compare and Contrast

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• Mining of iron ore in India-Mark on Map (Eastern Zone and Southern Zone)

For your Information– In March 2010, the Supreme Court stopped mining in Andhra’s Anantapur district until the mining leases were demarcated on the ground after its Central Empowered Committee (CEC) reported rampant encroachment and recommended that companies guilty of mining outside lease areas be allowed to resume mining and made to pay exemplary penalty.

• Iron Ore in India-Know its demand in domestic as well as in international market

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• The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2021-Know its features

• The Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2021 and the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957-Compare and Contrast

• How mining of iron ore affects environment?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Indian Minerals Yearbook 2018

Karnataka study shows eggs in mid-day meals help children’s growth

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story-There is “clear evidence of significant improvement” in the growth of children who are given eggs as part of mid-day meals, with girls in Class 8 gaining up to 71% more weight than their peers who were not served eggs, as per a study commissioned by the Karnataka government covering over 4,500 students in two districts.

• Midday Meal Scheme-What is the history of the scheme?

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• Midday Meal Scheme and National Scheme for PM Poshan Shakti Nirman-Different or both are same?

• What are the key features in the PM POSHAN Scheme?

• What is the scale of the scheme today?

• How wide are these variations in supplementary nutrition?

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• Why are eggs part of the menu in so few states and UTs?

• Do the Centre and states run the scheme jointly?

For your Information-Currently, eggs are served in mid-day meals in 13 states and three UTs as part of “additional food items”, with the states/UTs picking the tab. The frequency ranges from five days a week to once a month. In Karnataka, proposals to add eggs have been fiercely resisted in the past by Lingayat and Jain seers.

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• “Sunday ho ya Monday, Roz Khao Ande”-Know the background behind this campaign

• National Egg Coordination Committee (NECC)-Know in detail

• Why should eggs be seen above faith and religion?

• Eggs in midday meal-Right to food vs Right to faith

• “The inclusion of eggs would serve a dual purpose, it would get children to school, enhancing literacy in the country and it would provide a healthy and pleasant alternative to students, motivating them to be regular”-Do you agree with the given statement

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Explained: Midday meal and supplements

📍Karnataka government has done right thing by adding eggs to mid-day meals

THE CITY

Part of Central Vista meant for PMO awaits green clearance

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Main Examination: 

• General Studies II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

• General Studies III: Environmental Impact Assessment.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story-The Executive Enclave, a part of the Central Vista project which will house the Prime Minister’s Office, the Cabinet Secretariat, the National Security Council Secretariat and India House, is yet to receive environment clearance from the Delhi State Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA).

• Why State Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) has not given the clearance?

• What is Central Vista Redevelopment Project?

• Total expenditure on Central Vista Redevelopment Project?

• New Parliament and Central Vista Redevelopment Project-Know the key features

• Why a new Parliament?

• How Central Vista Redevelopment Project will draw the line between creating new heritage and taking care of existing heritage?

• What do you understand by the term ‘Environmental Impact Assessment’ (EIA)?

• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environment Protection Act, 1986-How they are related with each other?

• Why Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is Important?

• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Rules Amendment, 2006-Key features

• Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) notification 2020-Key Highlights

• Environmental Impact Assessment-Achievements, Issues and Challenges

• Supreme court of India on Environment Impact Assessment (ex-post facto environmental clearance)

• What is State Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAAs) in EIA?

• State expert appraisal committees, often known as SEACs, also exist at the Union and state levels to advise the government on the environmental clearance of development projects. How frequently does the government heed their recommendations?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Experts without expertise

📍Explained: How Delhi’s Central Vista redevelopment project is being executed

📍The proposed Central Vista will destroy Delhi’s cultural landscape

IN PARLIAMENT

Monsoon Session adjourned 4 days ahead of schedule

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story-The Monsoon Session of Parliament ended on Monday, with both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha adjourned sine die four days ahead of schedule. The session, which began on July 18 and was scheduled to go on till August 12.

• A sitting of Parliament can be terminated by adjournment or adjournment sine die-Know the difference between adjournment or adjournment sine die

• Who declares the House adjourned sine die, when the business of a session is completed?

• What is ‘session’ of the Parliament?

• Who summons each House of Parliament to meet?

• There are usually three parliament sessions in a year, what are they?

For Your Information-The period spanning between the prorogation of a House and its reassembly in a new session is called ‘recess’.

• Prorogation and dissolution-Compare and Contrast

• What is ‘Quorum’?

• Which languages are permitted for parliamentary business?

• Know the devices of parliamentary proceedings like question hour, zero hour etc.

• What is meant by motion in Parliament?

• What is the meaning of resolution in Parliament?

• Substantive, Substitute and Subsidiary Motion-Compare and Contrast

• Know these terms-Closure Motion, Privilege Motion, Calling Attention Motion, Adjournment Motion, No-Confidence Motion, Motion of Thanks etc.

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍A Disruption-Mukt Parliament

THE EDITORIAL PAGE

Let’s debate freebies

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story-Recently, several arms of legislature as well as executive have expressed concern over the culture of “freebies” in electoral politics. The prime minister, has called for an end to the “revdi” culture. The Reserve Bank of India, in a report published in June, linked the precarious state of state finances to “freebies”, particularly power subsidies, and the Supreme Court, recommended the creation of an expert body to examine the matter.

• Why PM Modi called for an end to the ‘Revdi’ culture?

• Why does everyone’s attention gravitate toward the word “freebies”?

• What is a good or bad freebie?

• “Irrational freebies… is analogous to bribery” or “populist freebies distort the informed decision-making of the voter”-What impression of freebies you get from these statements?

• According to author, ”prevalence of “freebie politics” is really an indictment of our economic policy and the abject failure to build a welfare state that invests in human capital”-Decode the statement

• How under-employment and low inter-generational mobility have been persistent features of the Indian economy?

• What is Supreme court’s take on Freebies?

• How freebies Impact Union and State budgets?

• Freebies and Fiscal stress-Connect the dots

• Why the word ‘Freebie’ is almost sounds pejorative especially in political and policy circle?

• What goods and services should be selected for Freebie programmes?

• What should be the ideal mode of delivery for Freebie Programmes and Schemes?

• What should be a prudent fiscal limit for funding such programmes?

• What do you understand by the term ‘Subsidy’?

• How the words “Essential” and “Merit “contradicts Freebie Programmes and Schemes?

• What do you understand by the term ‘Production-related incentives’?

• The macroeconomic stability of the Union is contingent on the macroeconomic stability of both the Centre and states-Critically Analyse

• The political dialogue built around freebies is fraught with danger. What ‘danger’ is associated with Freebies scheme?

• How Budget is managed for Freebies schemes and Programmes?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍From freebies to welfare

📍Who will bell revadi cat? EC to Niti, Finance to RBI, why hands tied

THE IDEAS PAGE

What east can teach west

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance.

Mains Examination: General Studies II: India and its neighbourhood- relations.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story-C Raja Mohan writes: Good news from India’s eastern frontier with Bangladesh raises a hope: If we can do it in the east, where the sources and consequences of Partition were far more complex, it should not be impossible to normalise the western frontier with Pakistan

• According to Author, “The inability of successive generations of Indian and Pakistani leaders to bring a closure to Partition in the west makes the talk of a “100-year war” credible”-Decode the statement
• For both Delhi and Dhaka, the reinvention of the bilateral relationship has been one of the most significant successes of their recent foreign policies-Know bilateral relationship between India and Bangladesh

• India’s take on long-standing territorial dispute with Bangladesh-Know the background

• Why engagement with Bangladesh is of the immense benefits of deeper economic for the India’s north-eastern states?

• The Author of this article suggests that, rather than regret the unfortunate dynamic on the western frontier and bemoan Pakistan’s reluctance to let the SAARC become a vehicle for regional cooperation, Delhi should focus on consolidating the “golden moment” in the east-What should be the course of action for Delhi to engage more with eastern neighbours?

• How the 75th anniversary of independence offers Delhi and Dhaka a special opportunity to elevate the ambition for their bilateral partnership?

• While Delhi has a strong government in place, Islamabad is going through one of the more difficult moments in its history-Elaborate

• India Pakistan Relations-Know the Historical Background

• What makes peace elusive between India-Pakistan in present scenario?

• Current events shaping India-Pakistan Relations-What are they?

• Major ‘changes’ in Indian diplomacy in the last eight years of New Delhi’s towards Pakistan-What is that ‘Change’ which author is trying to highlight?

• How diplomacy worked under former prime minister of India’s like PV Narasimha Rao, H D Deve Gowda, I K Gujral, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Manmohan Singh and Narendra Modi in the context of Pakistan?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Pakistan@75: Navigating the way forward

The dreams of 1942

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: History of India and Indian National Movement.

Main Examination: General Studies I: The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story-M Venkaiah Naidu writes: It is our moral responsibility to collectively put our shoulders to the wheel and devote ourselves to the overarching ideal of building the vibrant, prosperous and egalitarian India of our freedom fighters’ dreams

• The ‘Quit India movement’, also known as the Revolt of 1942 or the ‘August Revolution’ of 1942, was the most popular and effective mass movement in Gandhi’s series of agitations throughout the freedom struggle. Why?

• How Gandhi’s clarion call of “Do or Die” in his celebrated Quit India speech at the Gowalia Tank Maidan, Bombay, lent a sense of urgency to the growing upsurge against British rule, with the entire nation standing as one?

• Gandhi’s non-violence-Elaborate

• According to the historian Sumit Sarkar, “The summer of 1942 found Gandhi in a strange and uniquely militant mood”-Discuss

• “Gandhi’s mantra of Do or Die represents the militant mood of Gandhi”-How far you agree with this statement?

• How the Quit India movement became spontaneous participation of the masses compared to the earlier non-cooperation and civil disobedience movements?

• According to the Bipin Chandra “the great significance of Quit India movement was that it placed the demand for independence on the immediate agenda of the national movement”-How far you agree with the same?

• Quit India Movement in 1942-Know the Long term and short term factors that lead to this mass movement

• Quit India Movement-Critically analyse

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Explained: Recalling ‘Quit India’, when ordinary Indians took to the streets with a vow to ‘Do or Die’

GOVT & POLITICS

A first: Housing scheme for transpersons in Maharashtra

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Indian Polity and Governance-Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

Main Examination: General Studies II: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story-In a first-of-its-kind initiative in the country, Maharashtra’s social justice department will reserve a housing project comprising 150 flats for the transgender community in Nagpur. The department is also planning to move a proposal with agencies like MHADA and CIDCO to reserve a certain number of flats for transgenders.

• How Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act, 2019 defines Transgender person?

• What percentage of Indian population is transgender?

Do you Know-India’s 2011 Census was the first census in its history to incorporate the number of ‘trans’ population of the country. According to the 2011 Census, the number of persons who do not identify as ‘male’ or ‘female’ but as ‘other’ stands at 4,87,803 (0.04% of the total population). This ‘other’ category applied to persons who did not identify as either male or female, and included transgender persons.

• “Sex is biologically determined but gender is a social construct”-Critically Analyse

• Transgenders in India are still discriminated even after the Supreme Court has held that the right to self-identification of gender is part of the right to dignity and autonomy under Article 21 of the Constitution-Why?

• A National Council for Transgender (NCT) persons-role and objectives

• What are the Yogyakarta Principles?

• Employment rates of transgender in India-Know the data’s and Statistics

• What was the Supreme Court’s verdict in National Legal Services Authority vs Union Of India, 2014?

• Decriminalisation of homosexuality was much needed for transgenders and Section 377-Connect the dots

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Non-binary genders need more visibility in India’s Census 2021

EXPLAINED

RBI surveys, what they reveal

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Mains Examination: General Studies III: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilisation, of resources, growth, development and employment.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story-There were two big news developments last week for the Indian economy, First, the government released India’s trade data for July. Second, the RBI unveiled its latest monetary policy review as well as seven surveys that help it ascertain how the economy is doing.

• What does the trade data revealed?

• Is current account deficit and trade deficit same?

• The trade deficit has risen sharply that just in the first four months of the current financial year, it is already equal to the full-year trade deficit of 2020-21 and more than half of the trade deficit in 2021-22-Why?

• What is the trade deficit?

• The RBI released the results of seven surveys that it conducts. Each of these surveys throws light on some aspect or the other of the Indian economy-what are they? (Hint: Given in the article)

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Current Account Deficit vs. Trade Deficit: What’s the Difference?

What is Taiwan’s ‘porcupine strategy’ to fight back if China attacks

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Current events of national and international importance

Main Examination: General Studies II: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story-China launched aggressive and unprecedented military exercises near Taiwan in response to US House Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s visit to the island that Beijing claims as part of its territory.

• What is Taiwan’s strategy to fight back in case China attempts to occupy it by force?

• What is “porcupine doctrine”?

• Why there is need for such a strategy?

• “Taiwan can be next Ukraine”-How far you agree with this statement?

Map Work-Taiwan

• Taiwan and China-Know the Background

• Why does China have a problem with Pelosi visiting Taiwan?

• China-Taiwan tensions-Know in detail

• How does the world, and US, view Taiwan?

• How does the India view Taiwan?

• “Many East Asian and South East Asian countries economic and commercial interests are bound ever tighter with the large and growing Chinese economy”-How far you agree with this?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Explained: What is China’s problem with Nancy Pelosi visiting Taiwan?

📍Explained: Why a proposed Nancy Pelosi visit to Taiwan has raised US-China tensions

ECONOMY

Electricity Amendment Bill faces Oppn protests, sent to House panel

Syllabus:

Preliminary Examination: Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.

Main Examination: General Studies III: Infrastructure-Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

Key Points to Ponder:

What’s the ongoing story-The Electricity (Amendment) Bill, 2022, has been sent to the standing committee for consultation with stakeholders amid the Opposition calling it an encroachment into states’ powers and hurting the federal structure.

• The Electricity (Amendment) Bill, 2022-Know the key highlights

• The Electricity (Amendment) Bill, 2022-What is the Bill, why are there protests against it?

• What is the opposition to the Electricity (Amendment) Bill 2022?

• What are the Bill’s implications, as per protestors?

• How is it expected to impact power employees and consumers?

Other Important Articles Covering the same topic:

📍Explained: Why has the Electricity Amendment Bill led to protests in Punjab?

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